The Arms and Armour Gallery traces the cultural aspects of traditional Omani weapons from prehistoric times to the beginning of the 14th century AH/20th century CE. It highlights the technical development in these weapons inspired by the weapon industry in the outer world. The gallery is divided into two sections. The Traditional Arms and Armour section involves swords, kittarahs (curved single-edge swords), spears, axes, arrows and the Omani khanjar. The Gunpowder and Artillery section exhibits firearms such as rifles and cannons.
The design of the gallery is inspired by one of the two towers of al-Hazm Fort in al-Batinah South Governorate, which was built in the 12th century AH/18th century CE during the Yarubi Imams` Period and the foundation of the first Omani Empire. Such a design fits the context of the displayed objects.