The exhibits in these galleries span over two million years of human presence in the Oman Peninsula and three main archaeological periods; The Early Palaeolithic, which started over two million years ago, the Bronze Age (3100–1300 BCE), and the Iron Age (1300 BCE–629 CE).
Included from the Early Paleolithic are the earliest traces of human occupation in the Oman Peninsula. Artefacts from the Bronze Age highlight the great social and economic transformation, which took place during the 4th millennium BCE and the rise of the copper-rich civilisation known as Magan. There are also artefacts from Sull?t, a stronghold of Arab history which encompasses both Bronze and Iron Age sites and provides evidence of a mysterious snake cult. The Iron Age is further represented by a warrior’s weaponry and a series of finds related to metallurgy, pottery, fashion and style leading up to the Islamic Era. Articles representative of the Sassanid and Parthian presence are also exhibited here.